Why Did the Soviet Union Break Up?

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Many people want to know why Soviet Union collapsed, considering its past status as one of the highly influential super power in the world. As the strong successor to the Russian Empire, it conducted extensive scientific research on advanced space technology and weaponry. Furthermore, it once provided developing countries assistance, has a stable economy and strong military forces. It also became one of the most significant countries worldwide considering its contributions and roles as member of the United Nations Security Council.

Why the Country Broke Up

Why did the Soviet Union break up? The two reasons for this unexpected collapse were economic problems as well as an undermined political structure. U.S. President Ronald Reagan became instrumental in Saudi Arabia’s decision to sell its oil at lower prices. Consequently, the U.S.S.R. significantly reduced its oil profits. Because of this development, the hard currency reserves of the country became depleted.

In an effort to counter the country’s economic problems, then-Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev implemented a couple of significant policies in 1985, namely the Glasnost and Perestroika. The former was introduced to create transparency in the government, while the latter was designed to ease up the economic problems of the country. The Glasnost reduced government censorship and it opened the minds of the people about the weaknesses and problems of the country.

In addition to a bad economy, various satellite states, especially those from the eastern part of Europe, decided not to pursue communist ideals. This important development eventually led to the conclusion of the Cold War. Furthermore, the war with Afghanistan was abandoned as well sometime in 1988. The country also curtailed its military aid to former states. This move caused the emergency of different communist regimes. Another significant development that led to the dissolution of Soviet Union was the destruction of the Berlin Wall, which resulted from the unification of the western and eastern part of Germany.

Before the 1980s closed out, various constituent republics clamored for independence. In August 1991, full independence was declared by Latvia and Estonia. In December 1991, Ukraine, Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords. This all-important agreement was influential in the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. It was designed to replace the dissolved U.S.S.R.

On December 25, 1991, the resignation of Gorbachev as president led to the appointment of Boris Yeltsin as replacement. On the 26th of December, the U.S.S.R was considered finished. Its bankruptcy and collapse were declared. Although the various police forces as well as the Soviet Army remained, these two branches together with other remaining organizations were removed eventually in the second part of 1992.

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2 Responses to “Why Did the Soviet Union Break Up?”

  1. Shawn says:

    Wow..An important part in the world’s history shut it’s doors when this happened. And another one arose.

  2. AMARTYA SINHA says:

    The world goes through various phases of geo-political and geo-economic changes after every 30-40 years. Nazism and Fascism was wiped out from the face of the world in 1945 (after the defeat of axis forces in world war-2). The mighty Soviet Union broke up in 1991. Communism is a dead ideology now. But countries like China and Vietnam has modified their socialist economic theories from time to time. Socialism and capitalism will never die, because the clash between the bourgeois and the proletariat will never end. In the years ahead we will witness the rise of India, China, Brazil, South Africa and the new Russia. In the decades ahead we will also witness the emergence of the African Union as a big economic power (with Indian and Chinese help). So, a multipolar world is inevitable. Globalisation is the way towards happiness. But there is one aspect of communism which I like the most- Communists believe in atheism. I am also an atheist, who doesn’t believe in god. I hate the concept of religion as it pollutes the society. Meterialism is the way to success. I am born in a Hindu family in India, but I eat beef (cow meat) and pork with great pleasure. And nobody should dare to stop me from doing so because I believe in free thinking individualism.