Many people want to know why Soviet Union collapsed, considering its past status as one of the highly influential super power in the world. As the strong successor to the Russian Empire, it conducted extensive scientific research on advanced space technology and weaponry. Furthermore, it once provided developing countries assistance, has a stable economy and strong military forces. It also became one of the most significant countries worldwide considering its contributions and roles as member of the United Nations Security Council.
Why the Country Broke Up
Why did the Soviet Union break up? The two reasons for this unexpected collapse were economic problems as well as an undermined political structure. U.S. President Ronald Reagan became instrumental in Saudi Arabia’s decision to sell its oil at lower prices. Consequently, the U.S.S.R. significantly reduced its oil profits. Because of this development, the hard currency reserves of the country became depleted.
In an effort to counter the country’s economic problems, then-Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev implemented a couple of significant policies in 1985, namely the Glasnost and Perestroika. The former was introduced to create transparency in the government, while the latter was designed to ease up the economic problems of the country. The Glasnost reduced government censorship and it opened the minds of the people about the weaknesses and problems of the country.
In addition to a bad economy, various satellite states, especially those from the eastern part of Europe, decided not to pursue communist ideals. This important development eventually led to the conclusion of the Cold War. Furthermore, the war with Afghanistan was abandoned as well sometime in 1988. The country also curtailed its military aid to former states. This move caused the emergency of different communist regimes. Another significant development that led to the dissolution of Soviet Union was the destruction of the Berlin Wall, which resulted from the unification of the western and eastern part of Germany.
Before the 1980s closed out, various constituent republics clamored for independence. In August 1991, full independence was declared by Latvia and Estonia. In December 1991, Ukraine, Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords. This all-important agreement was influential in the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. It was designed to replace the dissolved U.S.S.R.
On December 25, 1991, the resignation of Gorbachev as president led to the appointment of Boris Yeltsin as replacement. On the 26th of December, the U.S.S.R was considered finished. Its bankruptcy and collapse were declared. Although the various police forces as well as the Soviet Army remained, these two branches together with other remaining organizations were removed eventually in the second part of 1992.