As one of the super powers in the past, it is highly interesting to know the Soviet Union collapsed. It was considered as the legitimate successor of the Russian Empire. Throughout the world, it was then famous for the advanced scientific research that it conducted on weaponry and space technology. More importantly, this country was famous because it provided aid to developing countries, economic stability and military strength. It was also part of the United Nations Security Council, which served as one of the most influential nations in the world.
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Why did the Soviet Union collapse? Two major factors caused this massive break down, namely the weakened political structure and economic problems. The United States, under former President Ronald Reagan, convinced Saudi Arabia to reduce their oil prices. In doing so, the U.S.S.R cannot profit from its very own oil products. This move resulted in the depletion of the hard currency reserves of the Soviet Union.
In 1985, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the Glasnost and Perestroika. These economic policies aimed for a much-needed improvement. The Glasnost eventually led to greater freedom of information. More importantly, it opened up the minds of the public about the mistakes and limitations of the government. Aside from a bad economy, some of satellite states in the eastern part of Europe started to abandon the ideals of communism. These factors pressured Gorbachev to put an end to the Cold War.
With all the problems of the country, Gorbachev decided to end its war with Afghanistan in 1988. After that, the leader ordered not to offer military aid in defense of former satellite states. The situation only got worse as various communist regimes gained control in these highly important states. Later on, West Germany and East Germany settled their differences, which led to the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
In the closing years of the 1980s, its constituent republics cried for sovereignty. Estonia and Latvia declared full independence in August 1991. The Belavezha Accords was signed by Belarus, Ukraine and Russia on December 8, 1991. This deal ordered the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States, which replaced the dissolved Soviet Union.
Gorbachev resigned as president on December 25, 1991. Boris Yeltsin assumed his position as Russian president. The following day, the collapse and bankruptcy of the Soviet Union was declared officially. This event concluded the end of the Soviet Union. Thereafter, numerous organizations remained in place such as the police forces and the Soviet Army. However, they were phased out slowly sometime in the second half of 1992.